February being Black History Month, our Co-Chairman Larry Irving has penned an op-ed for The Root looking back at efforts to close the digital divide. An excerpt:
Secretary Brown was a firm supporter of the e-rate proposal that provided low-cost Internet connectivity to schools and libraries across America. He worked to develop policies and establish grant programs designed to connect schools, libraries, hospitals and rural health clinics. It’s a straight line from Secretary Brown’s commitment to connecting schools to the Internet two decades ago to the ConnectEd program the Obama administration supports today. Secretary Brown understood that, particularly in the early days of the Internet, millions of Americans would have their first experience with the Web in public institutions, and he fought to ensure those institutions had the resources they needed to serve their public.
Perhaps most importantly, he understood that there was a “digital divide,” and that it was the role of government to assist industry in bridging that divide. The digital divide would have been deeper and more pervasive but for Secretary Brown.
It is his signature on the front page of the first report defining the digital divide and stating that we, as a nation, have an obligation to ensure that all Americans have access to essential technological tools. He knew that with government and industry working together and with the formulation of smart policies, we could drive Internet connectivity rates higher. In slightly more than two decades, we have gone from 2 million people with access to the Internet to almost 3 billion people having access worldwide. Much of that growth is the result of the vision and the work of Ron Brown.
Today we are at another technological inflection point, another time of great disruption. The mobile revolution and the so-called “IP transition” promise to be even more disruptive than the cable revolution and the Internet revolution. And they promise to provide great opportunity for the smart and the agile. Women and men of vision must step forward to embrace these twin revolutions and work to ensure that these new technological tools are used to improve education, increase access to health care and fitness tools and provide for greater productivity and economic opportunity for our community.
Via John Eggerton of Broadcasting & Cable, Comcast Vice-President David Cohen recently called broadband access a “central civil rights issue” before a crowd at the Minority Media Telecommunications Council:
“Civil rights advocates of 50 years ago fought and ultimately won the battle for equal rights,” he said, pointing out the upcoming 50th anniversary of Dr. Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech.
“But the battle for equal opportunity continues. And that battle won’t be won,” he said, “so long as we have people stranded on the wrong side of the digital divide because broadband technology is fast becoming the most essential tool for full participation in American society.”
This is a guest post from UK consumer siteChoose. — IIA
From 2009 to 2012, the UK spent about £24 million (about $36 million USD) on a big, co-ordinated effort to get people online for the first time.
The project – culminating in 2011 with an initiative called Race Online 2012 – appointed a prominent former businesswoman as a ‘digital champion’, partnered with large UK businesses and encouraged existing charities to undertake digital inclusion work.
Less Digitally Divided
Between 2009 and 2013 the number of UK adults who had never been online fell from 21% to 14%.
A million people had gone online for the very first time by May 2013.
The EU’s Digital Agenda aims for 15% inclusion by 2015, so the UK is already well ahead of most European peers.
Right now in the UK, 99% of 16 to 24 year olds have been online, compared to just 34% of adults over the age of 75.
But if Race Online in particular had any impact it was on the older segment of the population. In that big push in 2011 over 180,000 people aged over 75 age went online. Digital inclusion also increased in the 65-74 age range (to 60%) and the 55-64 age range (to 80%).
Race Online projects targeted older people through partnerships with charities such as Age UK, which organised community computer skills workshops. How far such projects are responsible for the increase in digital inclusion is in dispute, however, since it can obviously be put down partially to natural demographic change. The oldest people are far more likely to be excluded but they’re also, increasingly not counted in the statistics. Meanwhile, those moving into the age bracket are far more likely to have gone online at some point already.
Digital by Default
These campaigns have been highly publicised and supported in the highest levels of the UK Government partly because of an overall ‘digital by default’ agenda.
Putting welfare information and other public services online would, by some estimates, save the Government millions of pounds a year. Yet the most vulnerable people – the elderly, those living in poverty and those with disabilities – are also the most likely to be digitally excluded.
“There is far to go before digital becomes everyone’s chosen means of accessing public services,” the National Audit Office warned last year. “There are still significant numbers of people who cannot, or do not wish to, go online.”
For further information and research into the reasons for the digital inclusion of older people, please visit the Choose website.
In an interesting op-ed for The Huffington Post, digital marketer and entrepreneur Lottie Ntim examines the digital divide — not here in America, but globally:
While Web growth in North America can be said to have been largely driven by technologies that cater to personal needs (PCs, smartphones, smartphone apps), Internet usage in other regions such as Africa, has developed through more social channels, such as mobile banking. While internet penetration in Africa hovered around 16 percent last year, mobile telephony soared to one of the highest in the world. Currently, 90 percent of the continent has access to a mobile phone—a phenomenon that has helped topple dictatorships and connects rural communities to otherwise difficult to reach services such as healthcare, in addition to the now common money transfers via text.
Nevertheless, there is certainly no shortage of demand for technologies developed for personal use in this region. However their cost and the likelihood of limited access to Wi-Fi networks has meant a different kind of growth for Africa when it comes to Web usage.
Here’s some good news on the digital divide front. Jenny Kane of The Farmington New Mexico Daily Timesreports that the country’s largest Tribal Nation is getting a big broadband boost:
The Navajo Nation is about to get connected with the help of a tribal owned company.
Now in its final stages, a nearly $46 million dollar project is expected to create a broadband network that will give more than 30,000 households and 1,000 businesses access to improved wireless Internet service and cell phone service.
An additional 1,100 community institutions, including public safety, health, social services and emergency care facilities are expected to benefit from the new infrastructure.
“It’s a very complex project, and the Navajo Nation is the largest reservation in the country,” said Mike Scully, general manager of the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Wireless, first Navajo majority owned broadband company.
A recent story in USA Today from Ron Barnett highlights some of the benefits students at a South Carolina high school are receiving from being connected:
Jennifer Southers has flipped education upside-down for her math students at Hillcrest High School.
Instead of coming to class and listening to a lecture, then going home and trying out what they learned on their own, they listen to a lecture on video before class and work on putting the new knowledge to practice in the classroom, where their teacher is there to help.
“The level of frustration has almost disappeared completely on those lessons when we do that,” she said of the “flipped classroom” concept that she and other teachers are using.
Unfortunately, as Barnett’s piece goes on to point out, America’s ongoing digital divide may be creating an uneven playing field when it comes to educating students:
[W]hat about students who don’t have broadband Internet access at home? How can they keep up with their peers in streaming instructional videos and doing online research?
More than two-thirds of low-income families in South Carolina don’t have a high-speed Internet connection, said Jessica Ditto, spokeswoman for Connected Nation, a nonprofit organization that works to increase broadband access in the nation. Overall, 57 percent of households in the state have broadband access, she said.
Increasingly, access to the Internet means access to improved education, which means students in the 43% of South Carolina households not connected with broadband are at risk of being left behind when it comes to innovative learning. But as Barnett reports, there’s hope on the horizon — for South Carolina and elsewhere:
Bill Brown, executive director of educational technology services for Greenville County Schools, says 4G LTE technology offers the most promise for bridging the digital divide.
With it, “You could blanket buildings, you could blanket cities” with high-speed Internet access, he said.
More powerful networks — beginning with 4G LTE (which, as anyone who has experienced it can attest, is remarkably fast) and continuing with the shift to all-IP based networks — will mean more access in more ways for more people. With the future of education tied to technology, encouraging investment in these networks should be an educational priority.
Our Co-Chairman Jamal Simmons has penned an op-ed for The Root on the coming transition to all-IP networks and what its effect will be on America’s still lingering digital divide. Here’s a taste:
Putting smart policies in place to promote the IP transition would help address these concerns. With the right incentives, incumbent telephone companies could invest in and build faster, more robust and more dynamic IP-based networks that would provide residential customers with additional competitive choices for video, high-speed broadband and voice services. Accelerating the IP transition would also have the positive effect of shifting the cost burden of maintaining antiquated, legacy voice networks away from voice subscribers in communities of color, who would disproportionately have to pay the costs of maintaining outdated networks without the benefit of access to new services provided by next-generation networks being built at the same time.
Last week, our Co-Chair Jamal Simmons wrote about his experience moderating the recent “Beyond the Digital Divide: Capitalizing on the Technology Economy” forum. Today, Politic365 has more on the event, including Simmons’ remarks to attendees:
“I think it’s important, particularly for this generation, for people need to really know and understand the power they have in their hands and their homes to change their lives,” said Jamal Simmons, moderator of the panel and co-chair of the Internet Innovation Alliance.
Simmons highlighted some of the ways technology is transforming society in the education, employment, healthcare, and small business sectors. He also spoke about how public policy and the high-tech industry are responding to the growing use of broadband technology by American consumers.
“In 2011, the President of the United States spoke at the state of the union and said he wanted next generation high-speed wireless Internet to cover 98 percent of the country over the next five years,” said Simmons. “We are on the path to getting that done. Last year you saw wireless carriers invest $27 billion in new infrastructure to make sure people have access to wireless.”
Over at Light Reading, Jeff Baumgartner highlights a new idea aimed at bridging the digital divide:
The pre-paid model has worked wonders for the mobile market over the years, so why shouldn’t it be applied to U.S. broadband?
Wipro Ltd. is pitching the idea to the nation’s cable operators as they think about how to stoke broadband service growth. They’d like to tailor packages to lower-income consumers (or students), but without the associated risks of non-payments and bad debt.
“There’s sort of a hole out there that’s not being addressed,” says Stephen Snyder, the global head of business innovation for Wipro’s Global Media and Telecom unit. “It could open up a whole new revenue stream.”
As an advocate for the Asian American community, I aim to advance policies that benefit not only my community but all Americans. One great example is promoting the wireless revolution that is creating enormous opportunities for minority communities to flourish. As our networks grow faster and more reliable and our devices become more powerful, these opportunities will continue to expand.
Every day, more and more Asian Americans are using mobile devices to access the Internet. Recent studies show that Asian Americans, followed by other communities of color, are leading the way in smartphone adoption. While these studies do not take into account that certain Asian American subgroups likely have lower adoption rates, it is clear that no one should be denied access to this technology that improves our lives. Major barriers to Internet adoption, such as limited English proficiency, lack of digital literacy skills, and affordability need to be addressed. Yet limited deployment to low-income and rural communities also continues to negatively affect Asian Americans and other communities of color. That’s why I agree with President Obama’s goal of delivering next generation wireless broadband services to 98 percent of Americans by 2016.
But it’s going to take a couple of things to make that happen.
First, we have to make sure the private sector continues to invest in wireless networks and the devices and apps that use them. Last year, wireless service providers spent about $26 billion on building and maintaining the mobile infrastructure needed for wireless connectivity. These expenditures translate into jobs and economic opportunities for our communities. We need that investment to continue, and even increase, if we are to reach the President’s goal. The government must have policies in place that encourage this investment.
Second, more spectrum — the invisible airwaves that carry wireless signals — is required. As the wireless revolution continues to boom, we’ll need more spectrum to meet our growing demand. While recently passed legislation will free up a limited amount of spectrum, the government is the largest holder of spectrum. The government should quickly move to use its spectrum more efficiently and make spectrum available for consumer use. If we can do this, all Americans will be major beneficiaries.
Jason T. Lagria is the Telecommunications and Broadband Policy Staff Attorney at the Asian American Justice Center (AAJC), member of the Asian American Center for Advancing Justice. AAJC works to promote universal access and reduce barriers to critical technology and services for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and other underserved communities.
Kenneth Mallory and Tiffany Bain on Politic365 have written a good wrap-up of last week’s National Urban League panel “Job Creation and Education: Programmatic Efforts to Increase Broadband Adoption in African American Communities,” which featured the likes of FCC Commission Mignon Clyburn and Minority Media and Telecommunications Council President David Jonig, among others. Here’s a taste:
The panelists underscored that Internet was essential to living a meaningful life in the 21st century. Honig illustrated four main advantages of adopting broadband – having greater access to healthcare (through tele-health technologies), education, job opportunities, and civic engagement.
As part of their 2012 conference in New Orleans, the National Urban League is holding the panel discussion “Job Creation and Education: Programmatic Efforts to Increase Broadband Adoption in African AmericanCommunities.”
Moderated by Kristal High, Editor-in-Chief of Politic365, the discussion will feature David Honig of the Minority Media & Telecommunications Council, FCC Commissioner Mignon Clyburn, the NUL Policy Institute’s Madura Wijewardena, and Charisse Lillie of the Comcast Foundation.
With the digital divide still very much in place in America — especially among communities of color — this will be an important discussion in the midst of an important event. Even if you’re not in New Orleans for the convention, you should tune in to watch the livestream. You can also follow along on Twitter via the hashtag #Urbanleague
Courtesy of The Hill‘s Brendan Sasso, the FCC is making another major contribution to boost efforts aimed at closing the digital divide:
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) said on Wednesday that it will spend $115 million over the next three years to expand high-speed Internet service to 400,000 homes and businesses that currently lack it.
That funding will be coupled with “tens of millions” of dollars of private investment, the commission said.
The money is part of the FCC’s Connect America Fund, a subsidy that the commission created last year when it overhauled its Universal Service Fund, which focused on ensuring telephone access.
New numbers from Nielsen show how mobile broadband is increasingly playing a role in our lives. Via Phil Goldstein of FierceWireless:
In the first quarter of 2012 the average U.S. mobile subscriber used 450 MB of data per month, according to research firm Nielsen. That figure is more than double the average of 208 MB per month for all U.S. mobile subscribers in the first quarter of 2011.
While this is definitely good news — mobile broadband is a driving force in closing the digital divide — it also highlights the critical importance of freeing up more airwaves for wireless use.
Via John Eggerton of Broadcasting & Cable, the House Small Business Committee is scheduled to hold an important hearing about broadband access this week:
[O]n the list of witnesses for the hearing, Digital Divide: Expanding Broadband Access to Small Businesses, are former FCC commissioner and current Rural Utilities Service Administrator Jonathan Adelstein and National Telecommunications and Information Administration chief Larry Strickling. Strickling and Adelstein’s agencies are responsible for handing out and overseeing billions in broadband stimulus money.
The hearing is on the role of the federal government in expanding broadband to small business, particularly in rural areas.
The House hearing is this Wednesday, July 18. Also scheduled to testify is current FCC Chairman Julius Genachowski. We’ll have coverage here on the blog and on Twitter.
The FCC got it right this week by continuing a Clinton administration policy that removes price regulation for so-called “special access” business services in markets where strong competition exists.
Specifically, by allowing several pending petitions to take effect yesterday, the Commission green lighted pricing flexibility for special access lines operated separately by AT&T and Windstream in several markets throughout the country.
“Special access” is the inside baseball phrase for the lines that link cell towers and business centers to main telecommunications lines. While only indirectly related to consumer services, enabling pricing flexibility for these services represents the kind of forward thinking required to reach President Obama’s goal of delivering high-speed broadband to almost every American home and business. In essence, the Commission ratified the Clinton Administration’s determination that competition, not government, is the best way to set prices. Opting for competition over government rules is a way to stimulate telecom companies to battle for customers by investing in better, more advanced technologies. In today’s marketplace, such investment almost automatically means high-speed lines for broadband services.
That’s exactly what President Obama had in mind in last year’s State of the Union address when he said:
“Within the next five years, we’ll make it possible for businesses to deploy the next generation of high-speed wireless coverage to 98 percent of all Americans. This isn’t just about faster Internet or fewer dropped calls. It’s about connecting every part of America to the digital age.”
The President’s aspirations for a truly digital nation should be the guiding light for the FCC as it moves forward, not just in special access, but in everything it does. In every decision, each Commissioner should ask: “will this action encourage investment in a digital America, or is it an old way of doing business that just gets in the way?”
President Obama’s broadband deployment Executive Order (see below), received praise from CTIA, the nation’s largest wireless industry group, but as John Eggerton of Multichannel News reports, that praise came with a specific message:
“CTIA and the wireless industry are pleased to see the president recognizes that more Americans continue to rely on their mobile devices for anytime and anywhere access, including the Internet,” said CTIA president Steve Largent in a statement. “At the same time, we hope the president and his administration remain focused on getting more spectrum for the U.S. wireless industry so our members may handle the significant data usage of Americans now and in the future.”
With mobile broadband being rapidly adopted by America’s underserved communities, CTIA is right to point out that efforts to close the digital divide should focus both on wired networks and providing the airwaves mobile broadband needs to operate and grow.
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